Questions from Patreon: Retin A, retinol, and retinoids (part two)

Last Thursday, we started looking at retin A, retinol, retinoids, Vitamin A, and carotenoids, so let’s resume that fascinating topic! In the August Q&A on Patreon, Mildred asked: Question pls: Can I use a glycolic toner followed by a Retin A cream? I read a blog that these two needs to be used on alternate days but I … Read more

Vitamin C

I recently bought some Vitamin C in the hopes of using it in my products. So let’s see what this vitamin brings to the party! Vitamin C is a water soluble anti-oxidant has been proven in studies to be an anti-inflammatory that can stimulate collagen formation, lighten skin, treat hyperpigmentation, and heal wounds. It’s water … Read more


Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids, which are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons produced by plants, particularly conifers (wow, that sounded text-booky, eh?) They are either carotenes (oil soluble) or xanthophylls (more polar, water soluble with oxygen functional groups) with 40 carbon atoms. I’ll be going into more detail about terpenes and terpenoids in the near … Read more