Members’ exclusive: Liposomes – introduction to liposomes and other concepts.

In the January Q&A, Derek asked: I am eagerly waiting for the cosmeceuticals e-book. A few days ago while browsing different ingredients for cosmetics, I saw ceramide liposomes and retinol liposomes. It says that they absorb more in the skin if liposomes are used. However, I can’t find any resource on the use and formulation…...

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The chemistry of our skin (revised for 2018)

I’ve updated this post with interesting things I’ve learned in the past two years. The original post can be found here.  Your skin is composed of three layers – the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis or subcutis. Our main focus will be the epidermis or the outer layer of our skin. I find it interesting…...

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Can free fatty acids penetrate our skin?

We’ve established that studies have shown that some oils can penetrate the upper layers of our stratum corneum and that this can be a good thing because it means those oils can help improve the barrier lipids we find in the stratum corneum. So let’s take a moment to see if fatty acids we find in…...

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Tuesday Wonderings: Substitutions for comedogenic ingredients? And share your knowledge about Vitamin C esters!

SUBSTITUTION FOR COMEDOGENIC INGREDIENTS?In this post on oil free moisturizers, Elysia asks: Cetyl Alcohol is moderately comedogenic and the key ingredient in Germall – Propylene Glycol – is extremely comedogenic. Do you have suggestions for a acne-safe alternatives to these ingredients?I have very sensitive, acne-prone skin so I have to be really careful with what I…...

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Is there a reason to use expensive oils in our products?

I think we’ve established over the last week that some oils can penetrate our skin to offer an improvement to skin’s barrier lipids, that polyphenols can penetrate our skin to behave as anti-oxidants, and that phytosterols probably don’t penetrate our skin, but it’s okay because they help our skin by increasing its barrier properties. So…...

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Can oils penetrate our skin?

Now that we’ve taken a look at the fatty acids and triglycerides we find in oils, let’s see whether or not those things might penetrate our skin! From this article: Skin Research & Technology. Aug2012, Vol. 18 Issue 3, p364-369. 5p. (Click here for the entire text) Abstract: The aim of this study was the investigation…...

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Question: Is there any point in using expensive oils in our products? And a quick review of our skin

In this post, Simplifying a recipe: The oil phase of a body butter, Rosi asked: We know that not many ingredients will penetrate our hair, coconut oil has an affinity for hair. Now, what about our skin does oil penetrate our skin and does it benefits our skin? To which I answered: No, it won’t penetrate our…...

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Comedogenicity: What the heck does that mean?

What does comedogenicity mean or what does it mean when an ingredient is comedogenic? It means that an ingredient or product causes the formation of comedones (blackheads) in a relatively short period of time. Blackheads form when the outer layers of our skin do not shed properly and the hair follicle is blocked. The blackhead part comes…...

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Chemistry of our skin: pH and our skin care products

As we saw yesterday, the pH of our skin is pretty important. Out of whack pH levels can lead to an increase in scaling, a decrease in hydration, and a possible increase in bacterial and yeast infections. In short, having an out of whack pH level can lead to dry skin and icky infections! (And…...

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Chemistry of our skin: pH of our skin

I’ve found such an assortment of really interesting papers on the pH of our skin, I had to share them with you! The writing in purple is the text from the study with my comments before and after. What is the proper pH of our skin? As I’ve written in the past, the general range…...

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